1. Diabetic retinopathy
2. Hypertensive retinopathy
3. Retinal detachment
4. Bleeding inside eye/ vitreous haemorrhage
5. Inflammation of eyeball
6. Retinal vein or artery occlusion
7. Age related macular degeneration
8. Macular hole
When back part of eye or retina gets affected due to diabetes it is called as diabetic Retinopathy.
All diabetic patients are at risk. However prolonged duration of diabetes, poorly controlled diabetes, pregnant women, patients with hypertension or high BP, high cholesterol level, kidney problems, anemia are at high risk.
Vision loss in diabetic Retinopathy is mainly attributed to haemorrhages inside eye and accumulation of fluid at the centre of the retina ( macular edema).
It can be prevented by periodical comprehensive eye check up. All diabetic
Common complaints are floaters or black spots moving in front of eyes, seeing flashes of light, sudden loss of vision, metamorphosis or seeing straight lines as a wavy line, seeing black spots at the centre of the visual field etc.
Most of the diseases are diagnosed clinically. Latest diagnostic tools and multimodal imaging likes B scan ultrasonography(B scan) , fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), ocular coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angio etc can help in confirming the diagnosis.
There are different treatment modalities like laser, intravitreal injection and vitreoretinal surgery. Laser treatments are provided for diseases like diabetic retinopathy,retinal vein occlusion,macular edema,central serous chorioretinopathy. Common retinal diseases which are treated by vitreoretinal surgery include retinal detachment,macular hole and vitreous haemorrhage.